Archive for the ‘MEMO’ Category


This blog is born from the idea of two librarians, that, in the long ones, cold, dusty days,  have decided to undertake a walk of discovery and study of one of the most interesting aspects of the ancient book:

the paper and its watermarks.

Almost by chance, from the simple census, our interest is moved to the thematic close examination, to the origin, to the inventiveness, to the paternity of the sketches and the lines of these characteristic signs, that gives an affiliation and a proper and traceable history to the paper.

On this blog you can find different point of view about the world of the watermarks.

You can deepen your knowledges, read the pages to leave us comments and suggestions.

We wait you soon to visit our blog.


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“Una firma nell’acqua”

“A sign in the water”

Bull’s Head and Mermaid: The History of Paper and Watermarks from the Middle Ages to the Modern Period (2009, 128p)

This exhibition is dedicated to a special treasure within the framework of paper history research: watermarks. Visible when holding any bank note against light, watermarks were produced in a myriad of shapes from the 13th century on when they were first invented in Europe. They make an excellent mean to date unidentified documents, a Mozart manuscript for example, or authenticate works of art, such an etching signed “Rembrandt”.

The public is presented with a concise and profound introduction to watermarks, techniques of paper manufacture and the scientific study of papers in general. A special section deals with the watermarks analyzed against the background of medieval symbolism. The importance of watermarks for paleography is also underlined. Watermark scholars and watermark collections in Europe receive a due share of focus, while the digital presentation of watermarks of several European databases establishes the connection between past and present.

A catalog with detailed scientific information serves to deepen the various aspects shown through the exhibition.

catalogcover_engl_Bull's head and mermaid

This is a Bernstein’s project initiative. The english catalogue is not online yet.

In the Diocesan Library of Cremona you can read the italian catalogue. Click the link on the image!

From 29/10/2008 to 31/12/2008

Archivio Storico Civico and Biblioteca Trivulziana
Castello Sforzesco-Piazza Castello, 1 MILANO

Testa di bue e sirena. La memoria della carta e delle filigrane dal Medioevo al Seicento.
/ cured by Rückert , Peter . – Stuttgart, 2007 . – 94 p.

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